Full text: Chinese Outcome List of the Meeting Between the Chinese and US Presidents in Hangzhou (1)

Source:Xinhua Published: 2016/9/4 21:45:04

Chinese President Xi Jinping met with US President Barack Obama on Saturday ahead of the Group of 20 (G20) summit in China's eastern city of Hangzhou. Following is the full text of an outcome list of the meeting from the Chinese side.

Chinese Outcome List of the Meeting Between the Chinese and US Presidents in Hangzhou

On September 3, 2016, President Xi Jinping of the People's Republic of China held meetings with President Barack Obama of the United States of America during the G20 Hangzhou Summit. The two sides had in-depth, candid and constructive talks on China-US relations and major regional and global issues of common interest, and reached a wide range of important consensus. According to the Chinese foreign ministry officials, the consensus and outcomes reached by the two sides are as follows:

1. The New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States: The two sides commended the important progress made in the building of a new model of major-country relationship between China and the United States since the meeting between the two heads of state in Sunnylands in June 2013, and agreed to continue the joint endeavor to move forward this relationship in accordance with the consensus reached by the two presidents. The two sides will maintain close high-level communication and institutionalized dialogues, continue to enhance strategic mutual trust, deepen coordination and cooperation at bilateral, regional and global levels, manage differences and sensitive issues in a constructive manner, and promote the sustained, sound and steady development of China-US relations.

2. China and the United States recognize that the two economies are closely interconnected and each country has a strong stake in the economic prosperity of the other. Policies that lay the foundation for strong and sustainable growth in both economies are essential to improving the livelihoods of Chinese and American citizens, as well as countless others around the world. To this end:

-- China and the United States commit to use all policy tools - monetary, fiscal and structural - to foster confidence and strengthen growth. Monetary policy will continue to support economic activity and ensure price stability, consistent with central banks' mandates, but monetary policy alone cannot lead to balanced growth. Fiscal policy should be used flexibly to strengthen growth, job creation and household demand, and can complement and support the implementation of structural reforms.P

-- China and the United States jointly reaffirm their G20 exchange rate commitments, including that they will refrain from competitive devaluations and not target exchange rates for competitive purposes. China will continue an orderly transition to a market-determined exchange rate, enhancing two-way flexibility. China stresses that there is no basis for a sustained depreciation of the RMB. Both sides recognize the importance of clear policy communication.

-- The United States welcomes the commitments China has made on economic reform, especially on supply-side structural reform, and progress achieved so far, including efforts to strengthen the fundamental role of domestic consumption in driving China's economic growth. China commits to steadfastly advance supply-side structural reform, concentrating on cutting excess capacity, reducing inventory, deleveraging, lowering costs, and enhancing support for addressing weaknesses in economic and social development, to support China's transition to a more sustainable growth path. China commits to balance stable economic growth and structural adjustment, and expand domestic demand by increasing household consumption, increasing the service sector's proportion of the economy and ensuring investment is high quality and driven by the private sector. China will continue to simplify administrative procedures and transform government functions, press ahead with financial sector reforms to further enable the market to play a decisive role in credit allocation, open further the services sector to competition, and strengthen the social safety net.

-- The United States remains committed to promoting strong, sustainable and more balanced growth characterized by higher domestic investment, in particular infrastructure investment, and national savings. At the same time, the Administration continues to prioritize policies geared toward expanding access to education, reforming the immigration system, and improving the labor force participation rate and productivity.

-- China's fiscal policy has played a role in expanding domestic demand and supporting structural reform. Measures have included lowering taxes and fees, establishing a special fund to provide support for laid-off workers, reducing social security contributions of employers in a phased approach, strengthening the management of local government debt to address risks, and addressing shortcomings in economic and social development, including poverty reduction and ecological protection. Going forward, China commits to use proactive fiscal policy to promote structural reforms and expand demand as appropriate.

-- The United States recognizes the importance of predictability in the budget process and the impact budget uncertainty can have on the United States and global economies, and is committed to putting US government finances on a sustainable path over the medium term.

-- China recognizes that one of the goals of supply-side structural reform is corporate deleveraging, including managing the corresponding challenges for the banking sector. Building on current progress, China is to deepen supply-side structural reforms with a comprehensive strategy, including state-owned enterprise (SOE) reform, giving full play to the role of the market and legal mechanisms, to reduce corporate debt, including SOE debt.

-- Acknowledging the sizable impact these reforms will have on China and ultimately on global growth, China reaffirms its commitment to further improve the transparency of economic and financial policies as well as the availability of data on economic activity to better inform regulators, policymakers, firms, and investors worldwide.

3. China and the United States recognize that structural problems, including excess capacity in some industries, exacerbated by a weak global economic recovery and depressed market demand, have caused a negative impact on trade and workers. Both countries recognize that excess capacity in steel and other industries is a global issue which requires collective responses. Both sides recognize that subsidies and other types of support from governments or government-sponsored institutions can cause market distortions and contribute to global excess capacity and therefore require attention. The two sides commit to enhance communication and cooperation, and are committed to take effective steps to address the challenges so as to enhance market function and encourage adjustments. In this regard, China and the United States welcome the potential establishment of a Global Forum, with active participation of G20 members and interested OECD members, as a cooperative platform for dialogue and information-sharing on global capacity developments and on policies and support measures taken by governments, to be facilitated by the OECD Secretariat.

The United States welcomes China's supply-side structural reform program, which has cutting excess capacity as one of its key objectives. China and the United States recognize that due to a weak global economic recovery and depressed market demand, the excess capacity of the electrolytic aluminum industry has increased and become a global issue requiring collective response. Both countries are to work together to address the global electrolytic aluminum excess capacity.

China and the United States recognize the importance of the establishment and improvement of impartial bankruptcy systems and mechanisms. China attaches great importance to resolving excess capacity through the systems and mechanisms relating to mergers and acquisitions; restructuring; and bankruptcy reorganization, bankruptcy settlement, and bankruptcy liquidation, according to its laws. In the process of addressing excess capacity, China is to implement bankruptcy laws by continuing to establish special bankruptcy tribunals, further improving the bankruptcy administrator systems and using modern information tools. China and the United States commit to, starting as early as 2016, conduct regular and ad hoc communication and exchanges regarding the implementation of our respective bankruptcy laws through forums or mutual visits.

4. China and the United States remain committed to supporting an inclusive and resilient international economic architecture able to evolve with global realities, challenges and opportunities, including promoting comprehensive cooperation between the existing and new international financial institutions. China and the United States also share a commitment to upholding and further improving the high governance, environmental, and social standards of the existing international financial institutions, as well as in new and future institutions, consistent with the commitments made in September 2015. To this end:

-- China and the United States support a strong, quota-based and adequately resourced IMF at the center of the global financial safety net. China and the United States support maintaining the IMF's current lending capacity. China and the United States welcome that the 2010 IMF quota and governance reform have taken effect and are working towards the completion of the 15th General Review of Quotas by the 2017 Annual Meetings. China and the United States reaffirm that any realignment under the 15th review in quota shares is expected to result in increased shares for dynamic economies in line with their relative positions in the world economy, and hence likely in the share of emerging market and developing countries as a whole.

-- The United States supports the IMF's decision to include the RMB into the SDR currency basket on October 1st. Both countries support examination of the broader use of the SDR and exploring initiatives in this regard, including through broader reporting of accounts and statistics in the SDR and the issuance of SDR-denominated bonds.

-- China and the United States reiterate the importance of collaborating on the World Bank's shareholding review according to the roadmap and timeframe agreed by the World Bank Board of Governors. The United States commends China for its increased pledge to the Asian Development Fund-12 replenishment. The United States welcomes China's intent to meaningfully increase its contributions to the replenishments of the International Development Association and the African Development Fund in 2016.

-- China and the United States are to work together to support economic development in developing countries with the help of international financial institutions.

-- China and the United States reaffirm the Paris Club's role as the principal international forum for restructuring official bilateral debt and its discussion of a range of sovereign debt issues, and affirm that the Paris Club should keep pace with the changing landscape of official financing, including by expanding its membership to include emerging creditors. China will continue to participate in the Paris Club on a regular basis and play a more constructive role, including further discussions on potential membership.

-- China and the United States support efforts to incorporate the enhanced contractual clauses into sovereign bonds.

-- China and the United States welcome the completion of peer review reports under the G20 on the fossil fuel subsidies of China and the United States, and applaud the positive impact of completed and expected reforms on efficient fossil fuel use and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause climate change.

5. China and the United States affirm that innovation is a critical driver of economic development, job creation, and shared prosperity and that innovation plays a crucial role in developing solutions to domestic, global, and societal challenges. Furthermore, each side recognizes that the ability for China and the United States to trade, do business, and innovate together promotes prosperity for the people of our two nations and contributes to the growth of the global economy.

As partners in the pursuit of these common goals and in view of the increasing importance of China-US collaboration to the bilateral relationship, China and the United States recognize the importance of building and supporting the proper legal, regulatory, and policy frameworks necessary for fostering a healthy innovation ecosystem featuring robust investment in basic science and research and development, strong involvement by enterprises, and transparent policy design and implementation in our respective policies. China and the United States commit that their innovation policies are to be consistent with the principle of non-discrimination. China and the United States affirm the importance of developing and protecting intellectual property, including trade secrets, and commit not to advance generally applicable policies or practices that require the transfer of intellectual property rights or technology as a condition of doing business in their respective markets.

-- Both sides recognize the importance of the government's role in promoting a level playing field for foreign and domestic companies, and the importance of open and competitive markets, including in determining pricing of products and services, to drive innovation.

-- China and the United States recognize that the effective and balanced protection of intellectual property rights will be beneficial to promote innovation. Both sides are to continue to communicate and exchange views on relevant policies, such as protecting innovators from bad faith litigations.

-- Both countries affirm that access to a full range of global products, services and technology solutions ordinarily promotes the innovativeness and competitiveness of commercial enterprises.

-- Recognizing the importance of an interconnected global digital infrastructure, the value of innovative technologies, and technology users' security concerns, the two sides, consistent with WTO agreements, commit that their respective generally-applicable information and communication technology (ICT) security-related measures in commercial sectors (1) should treat technology in a non-discriminatory manner, (2) are not to unnecessarily limit or prevent commercial sales opportunities for foreign suppliers of ICT products or services, and (3) should be narrowly tailored, take into account international norms, be nondiscriminatory, and not impose nationality-based conditions or restrictions, on the purchase, sale, or use of ICT products by commercial enterprises unnecessarily.

6. China and the United States recognize the significant progress of the ongoing Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) negotiation toward a high-standard treaty reflecting the shared objectives of non-discrimination, transparency, and open and liberalized investment regimes. The two sides have recently exchanged the third revised and significantly improved negative list offers and made further progress in all aspects of the negotiation. China and the United States commit to further intensify the negotiation with a view to concluding a mutually beneficial and high-standard treaty.

7. Both sides highly value the important role the China-US Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT) plays in promoting bilateral economic and trade relations and expanding the mutually beneficial cooperation and high-level policy discussion, and commit to continue holding communication and dialogue under the framework of JCCT on the issues of interest to both governments and our stakeholders, work hard to seek solutions that meet both sides' interests, and work together towards the success of the 27th JCCT.

8. Recognizing the important role China-US trade and economic cooperation is playing at the subnational level, China and the United States are to further the implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Between the Department of Commerce of the United States of America and the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China to Establish a Framework to Promote Cooperation at the Subnational Level on Trade and Investment between China and the United States signed by the two governments during 26th Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, strengthen bilateral communication and coordination through China's Ministry of Commerce, the Chinese Embassy and Consulates General in the United States, US Department of Commerce, the US Embassy and Consulates General in China, and other stakeholders to jointly support, where appropriate, the exchanges of the trade and investment groups and relevant promoting activities under the MOU framework.

9. China and the United States commit to promote the dissemination of public-private partnership best practices to their respective subnational government entities and to further strengthen communication and information exchange in the area of public service facilities investment and operation.

10. The United States reiterated its commitment to encourage and facilitate export of commercial high technology items to China for civilian end-users and for civilian end-uses. Both sides reiterated their commitments to continue detailed and in-depth discussion of export control issues of mutual interest through the China-US High Technology and Strategic Trade Working Group.

11. China and the United States reaffirm the central role of the WTO in today's global economy, and commit to enhance communication and coordination on WTO issues. Both sides remain committed to advance negotiations on the remaining Doha Development Agenda issues as a matter of priority and are determined to work together to further strengthen the multilateral trading system. Both sides also note that a range of issues, such as those addressed in various regional trade agreements and by the B20, may be of common interest and importance to today's global economy, and thus may be legitimate issues for discussions in the WTO, without prejudice to respective positions relating to possible negotiations in the future.

12. Recognizing the importance of an efficient aviation system to the safe and secure transport of people and goods, and the strategic role that air transport plays in overall economic development, China and the United States commit to take individual and joint steps to address air transport system challenges. China-US aviation cooperation should be based on mutual benefit and the whole-of-government approach established at the June 2016 Strategic and Economic Dialogue. The two sides commit to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on the following areas:

-- The two sides acknowledge the importance of safety oversight and economic regulation to the development of air transportation and commit to pursue activities related to new and enhanced cooperation in these areas by civil aviation authorities.

-- Building on existing civil aviation cooperation between China and the United States, the two sides commit to conduct exchanges and explore cooperation on priority topics of mutual interest such as enhancing the efficiency of civil aviation and development of general aviation under technical assistance provided by the US Trade & Development Agency.

13. Military-to-Military Relations: The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to implementing the consensus reached by their national and military leaders, enhancing strategic dialogue, deepening practical cooperation, strengthening risk management, avoiding unexpected incidents, and promoting the sustained and smooth development of China-US military relations. The two sides stressed the significance of military practical cooperation in enhancing mutual trust and expanding common interests, and agreed to continue deepening the exchanges and cooperation in the areas of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR), counter-piracy, search and rescue, military health-care and UN peace-keeping, etc. The two sides will continue to jointly hold the HA/DR exercises and relevant exchanges, and launch consultation on the establishment of dialogue mechanism between their joint staff departments. The two sides agreed to have further exchange of views on international counter-terrorism issues. The military medicine departments of the two sides will co-host the 1st China-US military medical experts exchange on acupuncture therapy in China in 2017, and co-host the Asia Pacific Military Health Exchange (APMHE) in China in 2018. At the invitation of the US side, China will send a delegation to participate in a bilateral workshop on submarine rescue to be held in the US.

The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to implementing the two MOUs regarding confidence building measures signed by the Chinese Ministry of National Defense and the US Department of Defense, namely The Notification Mechanism of Major Military Activities and the Rules of Behavior for safety of Air and Maritime Encounters (ROB), in an active and strict manner. The two sides agreed to conduct joint training and seminar on familiarization and utilization of ROB within this year, when Chinese naval ships make port call in the US.

14. Cyber Security: Both sides shared the view that China and the United States have common interests and responsibilities in cyberspace. Both sides reaffirmed the consensus reached by the two heads of state during President Xi's visit to the US in September 2015, and agreed to continue to enhance cooperation in this area and jointly tackle challenges. The two sides highly commended the outcomes of the 2nd China-US High-Level Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues in June 2016, and decided to hold the third China-US High Level Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues in Washington D.C. in December 2016. Both sides recognized the outcome of the seminar on cyber security protection in August 2016, and decided to hold the Illegitimate Usage of Technology and Communication Assisting Violent Terrorism Activities Forum in October. The two sides recognized the value of the inaugural meeting of the Senior Experts Group on International Norms in Cyberspace and Related issues, and decided to hold the 2nd round of the Senior Experts Group meeting within 2016.

15. Law Enforcement Cooperation: Both sides commended the outcomes of their law enforcement cooperation in recent years, and agreed to continue to deepen and strengthen law enforcement cooperation including fugitives repatriation and criminal assets recovery, by utilizing the Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation (JLG) as the principal mechanism of bilateral law enforcement cooperation. The two sides will hold consultations on the issue of recognition and enforcement of forfeiture judgments with the aim of reaching proper arrangements. The two sides agreed to hold the 14th plenary session of the JLG in China in fall of 2016. The Ministry of Public Security of China and the Department of Homeland Security of US will hold a minister-level meeting in Washington D.C. in December 2016. The two sides decided to deepen and enhance cooperation on counter-narcotics law enforcement, and agreed to routinely exchange lists of controlled synthetic drugs and their analogs, and jointly tackle challenges posed by new drugs.

16. Anti-corruption, Fugitive Repatriation and Asset Recovery: The two sides applauded the important achievements in their practical cooperation on anti-corruption, fugitive repatriation and asset recovery in recent years, and decided to enhance cooperation on information sharing and individual cases between their anti-corruption and law enforcement authorities and deepen practical cooperation. They reaffirmed the role of the China-US Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation through the Working Group on Anti-Corruption (JLG ACWG) as the principal channel and will actively explore ways to raise the efficiency and the impact of cooperation. China commended the US assistance and cooperation on priority cases. The two sides will continue to cooperate on repatriating fugitives and illegal immigrants through chartered flights. The two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation on anti-money laundering and corruption asset recovery, jointly implement the relevant documents including the MOU on Anti-money Laundering and Anti-terrorist Financing Information Sharing, and consult on mutual recognition and execution of confiscation and an agreement on asset sharing. The two sides also agreed to consult on lawful procedures of returning criminal suspects through communication.

The two sides supported the endorsement by the G20 Summit of the High-level Principles on Persons Sought for Corruption and Asset Recovery and its decision to establish in China the Research Center on International Cooperation Regarding Persons Sought for Corruption and Asset Recovery, and committed to jointly promote the implementation of the G20 2017-2018 Anti-corruption Action Plan. The two sides will further strengthen anti-corruption cooperation under multilateral frameworks such as UNCAC, G20 and APEC, deny safe haven to the corrupt and their criminal proceeds, continue to implement the 2014 APEC Beijing Declaration on Fighting Corruption, and support the work of ACT-NET. The two sides decided to convene the 11th meeting of the JLG Anti-corruption Working Group before the end of 2016.

17. Counter-Terrorism Cooperation: The two sides recognized the rising threat of terrorism to regional and global stability and security, and the greater necessity and urgency in strengthening China-US cooperation on counter-terrorism. The two sides reiterated their opposition to terrorism in all its forms and called on the international community to actively conduct counter-terrorism cooperation and effectively combat terrorism in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other basic norms governing international relations. The two sides agreed to promote practical cooperation in concrete areas such as information sharing on counter-terrorism, combating terrorists' use of the Internet, stemming trans-border flow of foreign terrorist fighters, countering terrorist financing and de-radicalization, in line with the principle of mutual respect and equal-footed cooperation. China expressed appreciation that the US designated the East Turkistan Islamic Movement under the US Executive Order 13224 and supported its listing at the United Nations 1267 Committee. The two sides decided to hold the 3rd round of China-US Counter-terrorism Consultation at vice-ministerial level and the 2nd round of China-US Countering Improvised Explosive Devices Workshop in Washington in late 2016.

18. Coast Guard Cooperation: The two sides emphasized the importance of strengthening personnel exchanges, exchange of vessel port calls, information sharing and jointly combating maritime illegal activities and crimes by the Chinese and US coastguard authorities, and expressed intent to work together to sign the MOU on maritime law enforcement cooperation between Chinese and US coast guards at an early date. The two sides commended the progress made in the second round of expert consultation on the rules of behavior for safety of maritime encounters between the Chinese and US coast guards, confirmed their shared interests and goals in such areas as improving safety of surface to surface encounters, implementing maritime law enforcement responsibilities and maintaining maritime order, and agreed to continue to advance relevant consultations in order to conclude the rules of behavior at an early date.

19. People-to-People Exchanges: The two sides fully recognized the important role of enhanced people-to-people exchanges in increasing mutual understanding and friendship between China and the United States, and agreed to continue to push forward and implement relevant cooperative programs. The China National Tourism Administration and the US Department of Commerce will continue to jointly carry out China-US Tourism Leadership Summit and various programs of the China-US Tourism Year, including the Closing Ceremony of the China-US Tourism Year/the exchange program of 5,000 Chinese tourists visiting the US. The two sides reaffirmed the support to the China Garden Project and intent to hold groundbreaking ceremony before October 30, 2016 in Washington D.C.. The two sides decided that the 3rd Across the Pacific: Chinese Arts Festival would be held in relevant cities of California and Washington State from September to October, 2016. The China State Administration of Cultural Heritage and the US Metropolitan Museum of Art will jointly present an exhibition on the cultural heritage of Qin & Han dynasties in New York from March to July, 2017.

20. Sub-national Cooperation: The two sides spoke highly of the important progress made over the years in China-US sub-national exchange and cooperation, and supported their relevant departments and provinces/states to further expand cooperation. The Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries, National Health and Family Planning Commission of China, and Sister Cities International will jointly host the Third China-US Sister Cities Conference in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, from November 18 to 19, 2016. Local government leaders and representatives from different sectors of the two countries will hold discussions and plan for future cooperation on building healthy cities. The Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and US National Governors Association will jointly host the Fourth China-US Governors Forum in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, in 2017. The Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and US State Legislative Leaders Foundation will jointly host the Second China-US Sub-National Legislatures Cooperation Forum in Wuhan, Hubei Province, in 2017.

China and the United States affirmed their commitment to strengthening sub-national cooperation and announced the launch of a new program to promote effective municipal governance. The program - led by the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the National League of Cities, and with support from the US Department of State, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and other Chinese and US organizations as appropriate - is intended to host exchanges and workshops on environmentally sustainable urban planning, developing healthy communities, open government information, public participation and other governance issues. The first exchange is planned for early 2017 in the United States.

21. Interaction between China and US in the Asia-Pacific: The two sides emphasized that China and the United States are both major countries in the Asia-Pacific region and have broad common interests and common responsibilities in maintaining peace, stability and prosperity of the region. The two sides are committed to realizing inclusive cooperation and appropriately managing differences. The two sides decided to promote regional economic integration in a coordinated manner, agreed to strengthen communication and coordination within regional multilateral mechanisms, such as Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), East Asia Summit (EAS) and ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and will conduct three-party cooperation programs.

22. Afghanistan: The two sides recognized that a peaceful, stable and developing Afghanistan is in the common interests of both countries. The two sides appreciate the progress made on the peaceful reconstruction and development of Afghanistan, will continue provide assistance to Afghanistan to the best of their respective capacity, and help Afghanistan to strengthen its counter-terrorism capacity through respective channels. The two sides will continue to work together, including in the Quadrilateral Coordination Group, to support an Afghan-led and Afghan-owned peace process. The two sides decided to continue their joint training programs for Afghan personnel and in close consultation with the Afghan government, agreed to expand existing China-US capacity building programs for the Afghan government to add cooperation in the disaster management sector. The two sides will participate in the October 2016 Brussels Conference for Afghanistan and wish the conference a success.

23. Syria: The two sides reaffirmed their joint commitment to resolving the Syria issue through political and diplomatic means, emphasized that the relevant UNSC resolutions should be fully implemented, supported the United Nations as the main channel of mediation, and supported speedy restoration of peace and stability in Syria through a Syrian-led and Syrian-owned political process as soon as possible.

24. South Sudan: The two sides commended their efficient communication and coordination on South Sudan in recent years, expressed their concerns on the current situation of South Sudan, called on all parties of South Sudan to immediately cease fire and stop violence,and get back to the right track of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS). The two sides emphasized their continued support for the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)'s leading role in South Sudan's peace process. The two sides both believed that the legitimate rights and interests of international partners in South Sudan should be respected and protected, and called on the international community to continue providing humanitarian assistance to the people of South Sudan.

25. Iraq: China and the United States reaffirmed their shared interests in a stable Iraq and expressed support for the Iraqi government's efforts to implement reforms and combat terrorism. The two sides expressed deep concern over the humanitarian situation, and are willing to provide increased assistance to Iraq and improve coordination.

26. UN Affairs: The two sides reiterated their support for the United Nations playing an important role in international affairs as the most universal multilateral organization, and agreed to strengthen communication and cooperation in the UN and related institutions, and uphold and enhance the effectiveness of the UN in safeguarding peace and security and promoting development.

27. G20 Summit: The US side reaffirmed its support for China's hosting of a successful G20 Summit in Hangzhou, and for the G20 as the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Both sides agreed to continue to work closely and with all relevant parties to actively implement the outcomes of G20 Hangzhou Summit and promote strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth of the world economy.

28. Climate Change: President Xi Jinping and President Obama forged a historic partnership between China and the United States to lead in combating climate change. Combating climate change has formed a major pillar of the China-US bilateral relationship. China and the United States deposited with the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon their respective instrument of joining the Pairs Agreement, making a significant contribution towards the early entry into force of the Paris Agreement. The two sides are committed to working bilaterally and with other countries to advance the post-Paris negotiation process and to achieve successful outcomes this year in relevant multilateral fora. Both sides are committed to implementing the three presidential joint statements on climate change and to continue taking ambitious domestic actions to further promote the transition towards green, low-carbon and climate-resilient economies both domestically and internationally, and will continue to deepen and broaden bilateral climate change cooperation. The two sides have separately released a document titled 'China-US Climate Change Cooperation Outcomes'.

29. Development Cooperation: In 2016, China and the United States have worked under the cooperative principle of raised, agreed and led by recipient countries, to strengthen our development cooperation, following the signing in 2015 of a Memorandum of Understanding that provides a framework for better communication and cooperation to help achieve our shared development objectives, including ending poverty and hunger, promoting sustainable development, and implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In April 2016, China and the United States held the first ever China-US Development Cooperation Annual Meeting.

Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC): China and the United States reaffirmed a commitment to work with the African Union and its member states to advance the Africa CDC and sustain support for the Africa CDC. Both sides committed to finalize a memorandum of understanding by the end of 2016 among relevant government partners that further promotes the success of China-US cooperation to support the Africa CDC. The two sides also intend to cooperate with the African Union to support the planning and operations of the Africa CDC; in collaboration with Africa CDC plan the implementation of activities; strengthen technical capacity; jointly implement public health trainings; and accelerate the capacity of African public health experts. The two sides are committed to strengthen exchanges and cooperation among Chinese, African, and American health experts in disease control and prevention and share respective experiences.

Global Health and Global Health Security: China and the United States reaffirmed their decision to enhance concrete cooperation in public health and global health security. The two sides decided to continue to make contributions and strengthen their support to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and participate in the fifth replenishment conference on September 16, 2016. Both sides reaffirmed their support to advance the implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations. Both sides also encourage voluntary participation in WHO Joint External Evaluation. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to support the goals and objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) under the framework of WHO International Health Regulations. Both countries intend to enhance cooperation on anti-microbial resistance and other concerns. The two countries decided to strengthen African countries' public health capacity, including continuing post-Ebola cooperation in Sierra Leone and Liberia through training in areas including field epidemiology and laboratory systems and responding to health emergencies such as the Yellow Fever outbreak.

Food Security and Nutrition: China and the United States reaffirmed their support for the African Union's Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) to meet its goals to promote food security across the continent. The two countries also decided to explore cooperation on climate smart agriculture in Africa. The two sides committed to finalize plans for trilateral cooperation on aquaculture with the government of Timor-Leste in the fall of 2016.

Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response: China and the United States reaffirmed their commitment to support nations affected by El Nino and La Nina-related climate disasters. Both sides decided to increase their resource contributions to mechanisms supporting drought-affected countries in the Horn of Africa including through the World Food Program. The two sides also reaffirmed their commitment to continue cooperating on search and rescue capacity-building via the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group.

Multilateral Institutions: China and the United States intend to continue their cooperation with international institutions to tackle key global development challenges.

Clean Energy Cooperation: Under the framework of the Development Cooperation Annual Meeting between the Ministry of Commerce of China and the United States Agency for International Development, the two sides intend to explore clean energy cooperation possibilities in a third country.

30. Peacekeeping Cooperation: The two sides reaffirmed the importance of strengthening the UN peace keeping operations, and announced a joint commitment to work together to coordinate troop and police capacity-building efforts for peacekeeping in third countries in Africa. The two sides look forward to further exchanging views in this regard. China announced its intention, in conjunction with the establishment of its 8000-person standby peacekeeping force, to make certain units deployable within 60 days.

31. Refugee: China and the United States expressed grave concern over the increasing numbers of refugees globally. The Chinese side appreciates the US side's holding of the Summit on Refugees and commends the new contributions to be announced by the United States to protect and assist refugees. The United States welcomes the new contributions to be announced by China to support UN refugee efforts.

32. Space Cooperation: China and the United States recognized that space debris can be catastrophic to satellite and human spaceflight, and that, due to the global dependence on space-based capabilities, the creation of space debris can seriously affect all nations. Therefore, as two Permanent Members of the UN Security Council with major space programs, China and the United States committed to intensify cooperation to address the common challenge of the creation of space debris and to promote cooperation on this issue in the international community. Both sides agreed to work further on the basis of their inaugural Space Security Exchange held in May 2016 to expand consensus and to hold the second round of the Space Security Exchange before the end of 2016.

33. Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade: The two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation on combating wildlife trafficking, and reaffirmed the commitment made during President Xi Jinping's state visit to the US in 2015 and the 8th round of China-US Strategic & Economic Dialogue, reinforcing ivory trade control policies, conducting law enforcement exchanges and cooperation, combating online trade of illegal wildlife products, and encouraging cooperation with other countries pursuant to international conventions to take a comprehensive approach to combating wildlife trafficking.

34. Maritime Cooperation: The two sides affirmed their commitment to work with other relevant governments towards reaching an instrument to prevent unregulated commercial fishing in the high seas of the Central Arctic Ocean by the end of 2016. To further cooperation between China and the United States on polar and ocean matters, both sides decided to sign an MOU to facilitate cooperative and mutually beneficial science-related activities in both the Arctic and Antarctic. The two sides planned to hold the Eighth Annual Dialogue on the Law of the Sea and Polar Issues in the United States in 2017.

35. Cooperation on Civil Nuclear Security: The two sides committed to deepen their cooperation on nuclear security, and make joint contributions to promoting global nuclear security and nonproliferation. The two sides had held the first meeting of the annual bilateral dialogue focused on nuclear security, and issued the China-US Joint Statement on Nuclear Security Cooperation during the Nuclear Security Summit. The two sides noted with satisfaction that the Center of Excellence on Nuclear Security has been put into operation, the Ghana Miniature Neutron Source Reactor Conversion project has reached an important milestone. The two sides agreed to complete the conversion of the MNSR in Ghana as soon as possible, and committed to start the conversion of the MNSR in Nigeria as early as possible in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The two sides noted with satisfaction that a joint workshop on nuclear liability had been held in 2015, and agreed to strengthen communication and exchange on the nuclear liability regime.

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